This is the first of a series of articles in response to the book, “Dinosaur Blood and the Age of the Earth,” authored by Fazale Rana, Ph.D. (biochemistry). Rana is better known affectionately as “Fuz” Rana. My primary purpose in this series is to refute the primary speculation Fuz Rana advances in his book. Rana claims that the astonishing finds of soft original tissue of dinosaurs (and other organisms being routinely found all over the world now that we are actually looking for them) have been preserved intact for scores of millions of years and even hundreds of millions of years. Soft tissue from sub-Cambrian beard worms, supposedly 500 million years old, has even been found. Yes, that’s soft organic tissue that has endured for supposedly half a billion years! To put it in the modern vernacular: there’s something wrong with this picture–very, very wrong!
The format of this series will be a chapter by chapter response to Rana’s book. But first…
I regard the discovery of the existence of soft, extant, original organic tissue from dinosaurs (and other supposedly millions of years old organisms) as the premier scientific discovery of our time because of its significance. These discoveries plainly disprove the scientific models commonly accepted by secular scientists in combination of 1) the age of the earth and 2) the nature of the fossilization process and 3) the sciences of chemical kinetics and forensics, that is, the study of the rates of organic tissue decay.
It is now admitted on all sides, because of these discoveries, that something has to give, that something is wrong about our understanding about one or even all three of these scientific models. (But professor, did not the secular scientists tell us emphatically with absolute assurance that they had all this definitively worked out decades ago?) It is not difficult to guess which of these three models is going to be revised by our secular, atheistic, academic establishment, committed as they are to the religion of Naturalism.
As I began to prepare my response to “Dinosuar Blood and the Age of the Earth,” I realized that it would be helpful to the reader who is unacquainted with this matter to place Rana’s book in context. It is not possible to evaluate the claims Rana makes in “Dinosaur Blood and the Age of the Earth” without understanding from whence Rana’s views arise. “Dinosaur Blood and the Age of the Earth,” did not arise from a blank slate, ex nihilo, as it were. It has a root, a foundation from which it springs. A response to Fuz Rana is, to a great extent, a response to Hugh Ross. Fuz Rana is a member of the Reasons to Believe organization headed by Hugh Ross, so I deemed it beneficial and relevant to make some preliminary observations about Hugh Ross and the views he promulgates, since these are the views at the foundations of Fuz Rana’s book, “Dinosaur Blood and the Age of the Earth.”
Who is Hugh Ross? Hugh Ross is a professional astronomer and a pastor and an author who defends the “day-age” view of Genesis 1. The “day-age” view is the doctrine that the seven days of Genesis 1 with their evenings and mornings are not 24 hour days, but represent long ages of geologic time of many millions of years. Hugh Ross lays out his beliefs about theology, creation, evolution, the age of the universe, the age of the earth, etc., in his book. “A Matter of Days.” Among other things, Hugh Ross believes in Big Bang cosmology, an ancient universe 14 billion years old or so, an ancient earth about 4 billion years old or so, long ages of death and suffering prior to the creation of Adam and Eve, the existence of “bipedal primates” preceding human beings, that human beings have occupied this planet for about 50,000 years, and that Noah’s flood was not a global flood. Thankfully, Hugh Ross does repudiate evolution, at least. This is hardly going to be a complete analysis of Ross’s views, but a focus upon the more basic and controlling aspects of his views and a few representative examples from his book, “A Matter of Days.”
Hugh Ross vs. Biblical Authority: Aiding and Abetting the Enemy
One extremely significant and, indeed, pivotal, aspect of Hugh Ross’s argumentation in “A Matter of Days” is his basic interpretive approach to Scripture. For Bible-believing Christians endeavoring to correctly understand and interpret Scripture, you can’t get a more important and fundamental consideration than that. If your basic method of interpreting Scripture is flawed, then everything else which flows from that will almost certainly be flawed, as well.
The overwhelming majority of us who call ourselves born-again, Bible believing Christians adhere to the doctrine of the verbal Divine inspiration of Scripture. This view, or rather its inevitable logical outcome, is expressed in the Reformation rally cry of “Sola Scriptura.” We regard the Bible as the Word of God and, therefore, as the final authority on all it declares. The Bible is, itself, the ultimate judge of all other truth claims; and the Bible, being the Word of God, is itself its own interpreter. To understand and interpret Scripture faithfully and correctly, and to resolve doctrinal disputes, Scripture itself must be consulted and compared to Scripture. This is the Protestant Reformation legacy of the doctrine of the inspiration of Scripture. It is required of us, as accountable stewards of God’s revelation, to honor Scripture as the authority that it inherently is, not only in proclamation but in practice.
Does Hugh Ross adhere to this proclamation? Notice carefully the substance and specific content of my question. I did not ask if Hugh Ross believes that the Bible is the ultimate authority and judge of all other truth claims; and I did not ask if Hugh Ross confesses that Scripture is the ultimate authority and judge of all other truth claims. I asked if Hugh Ross adheres to this proclamation. It is one thing to say something; it is quite another to do it and to put it into practice faithfully.
It is my contention, having studied Ross’s book, “A Matter of Days,” that whatever Hugh Ross may proclaim or believe about the authority of Scripture, he does not adhere to the authority of Scripture in practice in his handling of and interpretation of Scripture. And I will cite Ross himself below in statements that I believe will definitively show that he subordinates the authority of Scripture, the Word of God, to the “authority” of that which is outside of Scripture.
Unless I have overlooked relevant comments, the first place in “A Matter of Days” where Ross begins to reveal his approach to biblical authority and the proper interpretation of Scripture is on page 35. Ross takes Christian Reconstructionist commentator Gary North to task regarding his approach to Scripture. This is a very revealing and telling comment by Ross:
“Reconstruction theology, as taught by Gary North and others, combines Puritan beliefs about law, politics, and end-time events with theologian Cornelius Van Til’s apologetics theory called presuppositionalism. According to some of its advocates, presuppositionalism says all human reasoning and interpretation of scientific evidence must be subordinate to a “biblical” interpretation of reality. Some young-earth creationists adopt an extreme form of presuppositionalism, asserting that any scientific interpretation of the record of nature can be discounted in light of their young-earth interpretation of the words of the Bible.” (pg. 35, bold emphasis supplied)
Dear reader, do you see what Ross is doing here? Hugh Ross obviously has a problem with this interpretive methodology because it places the Bible as the supreme authority–and Ross will have none of that. Gary North’s presuppositionalism here is simply the Reformation doctrine of “Sola Scriptura,” which proclaims that the Bible is the Word of God and, as such, it is the supreme authority in all that it proclaims, and is the standard by which all other truth claims are to be judged. As is obvious from Ross’s disparaging remarks, Ross has a problem with “Sola Scriptura,” and prefers some other authority, the “authority” of “scientific interpretation of the record of nature,”– in a word, himself, since he is the scientist providing the authoritative scientific interpretation. This is where Ross draws a line in the sand. Ross does not want his reasoning to be subordinate to a biblical interpretation of reality.
I find Ross to be subversive and manipulative in his polemics here, in that he attempts to equate the principle of biblical authority as being nothing more than the interpretations of young earth creationists. Moreover, Ross, in these words, betrays himself as having an intuitive awareness that there is a dichotomy here, a divide, a distinction between human reasoning and interpretation of scientific evidence vs. a biblical interpretation of reality. Ross, himself, states the antithesis, the conflict. It is the Bible vs. human interpretation of scientific evidence.
Another place where Ross touches upon the authority and interpretation of Scripture is on page 87. I am only interested in the very last phrase here. However to avoid the charge of quoting Ross out of context, consider this lengthy extract:
“The Bible clearly affirms that God’s handiwork displays His character…
“According to Christian theology, then, an honest investigation of nature leads to discovery of truths about God and His otherwise invisible character qualities. People are ‘without excuse’ because the physical universe speaks in a trustworthy manner. God could not remain consistent with His character and hold people accountable for their response to revelation in the creation if, indeed, the record of nature is a distorted message.
“In no way does God’s revelation via the universe detract from the importance of His written revelation. Nor does this belief in the trustworthiness of nature’s message imply that God never intervenes in the natural realm by performing miracles. It does mean that when He performs such miracles God does not remove, hide, or distort physical evidence for them. While one might argue that God could have altered the laws of physics at the instant Adam sinned against Him, theology again demonstrates that He would have left evidence to that effect. Since Jeremiah and Paul explicitly stated that the physical laws are fixed (Jeremiah 33:25; Romans 8: 19-22), and since the astronomical record shows no evidence of an alteration, we can conclude God did not change them. What He ‘could have done’ becomes irrelevant. (See pages 139-184 for a discussion of astronomy’s inviolable testimony of natural history.)”
Veterans of this subject will immediately recognize Ross’s confusion, and fallacious logic, and faulty inferences at this juncture on multiple points. Ross may be a competent astronomer but he is a lousy theologian (and even competence at his profession of astronomy does not make him right). Ross refers to “astronomy’s inviolable testimony of natural history” as if astronomy were given to us in verbal propositions like the Bible; and as if the data of astronomy is not filtered through the lens of fallible human interpretation and limited knowledge. Ross speaks as if the “testimony” of astronomy somehow conveys to our minds exhaustive knowledge of all things, and that is hardly what Psalm 19 and Jeremiah 33 and Romans 8 are saying.
Anyone who adheres to the Reformation doctrine of the inspiration and authority of Scripture, and its interpretive corollary, “Sola Scriptura,” must strenuously object to Ross’s approach here. Ross’s approach subverts the authority of Scripture. Whether willful and deliberate or not, Ross is essentially rejecting the authority of Scripture by this interpretive methodology and replacing the authority of Scripture with the “authority” of human interpretation of astronomical data–Ross’s claim of fidelity to biblical authority notwithstanding. Ross, of course, will vehemently object to this evaluation simply because he holds formally to the proposition of the Divine inspiration of Scripture. However, by Ross’s interpretive methodology the proclamations of Scripture must inevitably be subordinated to conform to an understanding of nature from outside of Scripture.
The idea which lies at the root of Ross’s statement here is that our ability as humans to understand the testimony of astronomy is both complete and infallible—or, more to the point, that Hugh Ross’s ability as a human to understand the testimony of astronomy is complete and infallible. Ross is once again substituting the authority of the Word of God with another authority, once again his own authority, since he is holding himself up as the authoritative interpreter of “astronomy’s inviolable testimony.” There are plenty of astronomers, both Christian and non-Christian, who do not agree with Ross’s interpretation of astronomical data. I find Hugh Ross to be weighed in the balances and found wanting regarding the authority of Scripture. And I find it significant that Hugh Ross finds it necessary to approach Scripture in this manner to validate his claims. That should tell us something about the legitimacy of the things he is claiming.
Another place where Ross is quite explicit about an extra-biblical source of authority replacing the Bible as its own interpreter is on page 148. Ross states:
“Scientific verification can help determine which creation-date interpretations are viable and which are not.”
YIKES!!!!!!! If this were a video, the sound track would have the sound of cars slamming on their brakes and screeching to a halt at that quote from Ross. Any good theologian worth his salt will tell you that it is SCRIPTURE which interprets Scripture. And any honest scientist will affirm the long-standing truism of scientists that all scientific propositions are TENTATIVE. This proclamation of Ross’s is particularly pernicious. This is a gross, explicit replacement of the Bible’s authority with another authority, and a subordination of the Bible’s authority to an outside authority. Once again, Ross places the ultimate authority outside of Scripture, while claiming at the same time to uphold the authority of Scripture. Ross’s interpretive methodology here, whether deliberate or not, is insidious in its subtlety and its subversive effect. This is implicit idolatry. While Ross claims to bow to the authority of Scripture, the Word of God, he simultaneously SUBSTITUTES the authority of Scripture with another, different authority.
Going a little deeper: A couple specific exegetical examples
As we proceed to examine Hugh Ross’s specific biblical exposition, we do well to remember his interpretive foundation, and that this interpretive foundation controls his conclusions. Ross argues from an interpretive foundation controlled by a fundamental interpretive methodology which is profoundly flawed. Now, I do not believe that being wrong about creation doctrine makes Ross a heretic (although I can certainly understand why some accuse him of being so) and I do not believe Hugh Ross is a wolf in sheep’s clothing, but I do believe that Hugh Ross is a sheep carried away by the wolf. What I do know beyond even the slightest possibility of doubt whatsoever, is that some of the things Hugh Ross teaches about the Bible are flatly contradictory to the Bible. And it is his fundamentally flawed interpretive methodology which has allowed for that to happen.
I am going to begin this analysis from a passage, Genesis 1:29-30, that some may regard as a more secondary or subsidiary side branch in the journey of biblical interpretation, but I trust the reader will see the reason for this as we proceed.
29 And God said, “See, I have given you every herb that yields seed which is on the face of all the earth, and every tree whose fruit yields seed; to you it shall be for food. 30 Also, to every beast of the earth, to every bird of the air, and to everything that creeps on the earth, in which there is life, I have given every green herb for food”; and it was so.—Genesis 1:29-30
What does Hugh Ross believe? Hugh Ross believes that the “days” of Genesis 1 are actually long ages of many millions of years. Hugh Ross believes in a very ancient earth as is indicated in the following quotation:
“The 3.8 billion years of plant and animal death and extinction that preceded humanity provided for the needs of civilization. Through that death and decay, God gave humanity enormous biodeposits…”—pg. 103, “A Matter of Days.”
Obviously, from Ross’s perspective, the Great Flood had nothing to do with it.
One of the debates that rages in the biblical creationist vs. old-earth “creationist” controversy (yes, scream and yell if you like, but I do not regard old earth creationists as biblical creationists, despite their sincere intentions to be so) is the question of whether there was death among the animals before the entrance of sin into the world by Adam, and whether the original creation was “red in tooth and claw” (as Alfred Lord Tennyson put it) with predatory animals preying upon other animals for millions or billions of years.
Hugh Ross and other so-called old-earth “biblical” creationists, insist that the earth is billions of years old and that there were millions or billions of years of history before Adam and Eve in which the current state of affairs among the wild animals prevailed with carnivorous predation as the normal and natural state of affairs. Hugh Ross and others of like mind even tell us that such a state of affairs was very good in God’s eyes! It was a “perfectly balanced ecology,” you see! This doctrine by Hugh Ross, et al, constitutes a flat-out claim that the Bible is wrong when it declares in Genesis 1:29-30 that the animals of the original creation were vegetarian in diet. Of course, Hugh Ross claims that his doctrine comes straight out of the Bible.
Genesis 1:29-30 tells us that, upon the creation of land-dwelling animals on the sixth day, the original diet of “every beast of the earth,” and “every bird of the air” and “everything that creeps upon the earth,” was herbivorous, vegetarian. The Bible is clear to the point of being emphatic and beyond even the possibility of misunderstanding on this point. So WHY is there debate upon this point among those calling themselves “Bible-believing Christians” when the Bible is clear and explicit on this matter? The answer, obviously, is that there are those who are Bible-believing Christians, and there are those who are not Bible-believing Christians but who deceive themselves into thinking that they are Bible-believing Christians. Hugh Ross is such a one.
Consider this passage of Scripture:
10 A righteous man regardeth the life of his beast: but the tender mercies of the wicked are cruel.”—Proverbs 12:10
Note well, that the treatment of animals is clearly portrayed in this passage as an ethical issue, a question of righteousness. Cruelty to animals is clearly declared to be an UNrighteous thing. It is a righteous man who regards the life of his beast. And it is a wicked man who is cruel to his animals. I have always maintained that you can tell a lot about a man by the way he treats his animals.
The sacrificial system of biblical Israel, the system of animal sacrifice for sin, is not based upon an indifference to the animal creation, or consigning them to a place of insignificance. Quite the contrary. If this is what we think, we have missed the very essence of the institution. The whole point of animal sacrifice is to stress the utter tragedy of sin and the consequences to the whole creation which it brought. A living, feeling, sentient being worthy of our compassion must die because of sin. That is how serious sin is in God’s eyes. If we try to justify the institution of animal sacrifice to unbelievers (or ourselves) on the basis that, after all, it is “only” an animal, and it is only an allegorical representation, then we have entirely missed the significance of the institution. Contrary to what many people think, the Israelites were not insensitive or calloused or unbothered by the reality of suffering and death among the animals. Hugh Ross, on the other hand, thinks such suffering and death is actually a very good thing!
A Thorny Issue
Consider one of the curses the Lord imposed upon Adam because of his sin:
“17 And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life;18 Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field;19 In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.” –Genesis 3:17-19
The fossil record is filled with abundant examples of thorns and thistles. The Bible tells us that thorns came about after the sin of Adam as part of the curse upon the ground. Hugh Ross claims that the fossil record precedes human beings by billions of years. We have a very simple choice here: do we believe the Bible? Or do we believe Hugh Ross? Hugh Ross is an antagonist against the Bible on this point, as well as many others.
Genesis 2:4 and the creation week?
“These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens.”
In his zeal to distort the creation days of Genesis 1 to long eons of time, Ross attempts to solicit Genesis 2:4 as support for his doctrine.
“The wording of Genesis 2:4 reads in the literal hebrew,”These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created in the day of their making.” Here the word “day” (yōm) refers to all six creation days, a period longer than 24 hours. ” –pg. 76, “A Matter of Days”
This, too, is interpretation and not at all an obvious rendering. Ross is clearly inferring something, surmising something, which is not explicitly stated in the text. On the literal face of it, Genesis 2:4 speaks only of the first day, when the heavens and the earth were created, does it not?
Does not Genesis 2:4 clearly refer back to Genesis 1:1? Ross interprets the verse as implying something it does not explicitly state. What is Ross’s proof that the word “day” in Genesis 2:4 refers to the entire creation week? Whatever may be deduced from the verse by way of inference, the explicit and specific items mentioned reference what was done on the first day, the creation of the heavens and the earth. That much must be conceded since that is empirical fact. Anything beyond that is inference, and the inference is only as good as the logic of the one doing the inferring. I assert that Ross’s logic at this point is faulty.
Since Ross delves off into interpretation of this verse, let me give my own sense and rendering of Genesis 2:4: “These are the generations of” = “These are the things which came from (were generated from),”
“the creation which God created on the first day” = “when they were created on the day of their making,” (i.e., the heavens and the earth.
“There was a day when God created the heavens and the earth, and everything just recounted was what was generated from what God did on that first day of creation.”
Is not this sense of the verse plainly in keeping with the literal language? Contrary to Hugh Ross, we most certainly do NOT have an unequivocal reference to the entire creation week in the word “day” (yōm) in Genesis 2:4. I assert that since the explicit language of Genesis 2:4 specifically reiterates the particular nouns in Genesis 1:1 (the heavens and the earth), the most natural and unforced understanding of Genesis 2:4 is to understand “yōm” as a reference to Day 1 only of the creation week when the heavens and the earth were created, and the balance of the verse as referring to everything that ensued upon, or was “generated from” that one day. The proper understanding of the verse is that simple. Unlike Hugh Ross and others, we do not need a whole labyrinthine book of linguistic contortionism to explain it. Basic context and simple logic resolve the interpretation here.
Some Personal Observations
When I first joined the ranks of active creationists declaring the truth of Biblical creation, one of my goals was to avoid “intramural,” in-house conflict and controversy with other Christians and, in fact, not to sideline into too much biblical theology because of the various doctrinal positions of various denominations and groups. I like clarity and focus and also want to avoid muddying the waters with related but distinct issues. My goal was to stay focused on the doctrine of Creation and relevant empirical sciences and to put forth negative critiques of Naturalistic evolution. Since the polemics of this issue are nearly universally (correctly) perceived as a “creationist vs evolutionist” controversy, the refutation of evolution is essentially an affirmation of Creation.
As I have matured in my reflections on the creation-evolution controversy it has become increasingly obvious to me that the issue of time and of the age of the earth is utterly essential to evolutionary dogma. For evolutionists the dogma of a very ancient earth is at the top, or very near the top, of their most sacred of sacred doctrines. Evolutionists do not use that terminology, of course, but that is precisely how they regard the doctrine of an ancient earth billions of years old. The place the doctrine of an old earth plays in their system of thought can be gauged by the fact that the most unbelievably vile and profane vitriol comes out of the mouths of evolutionists when you question their dogma of a very ancient earth. (Think I’m exaggerating? Just peruse YouTube videos for a while and follow the replies.)
The critical icons of an ancient earth have been falling one by one. One such evolutionary icon, radiometric “dating” of rocks and fossils, has been shown to be founded, firstly, upon dubious assumptions and, secondly, has been empirically demonstrated to produce age “results” of billions of years on lava rock of known young age of tens or hundreds of years—a “proof of the pudding” kind of evidence, if you ask me. Since such results were obtained, for example, from lava-rock from an eruption of Mt. Kilauea in 1801 giving an age of 3 billion years, does this dating result not serve as at least a rough calibration standard to judge the ages of rock of unknown age? The evolutionists, of course, will have none of this (and neither will Hugh Ross). Though bearing directly upon the reliability and credibility of the current calibration standards, the evolutionists simply ignore these discordant results. Empirical facts contrary to evolutionary dogma are no obstacle for evolutionists! The paradigm is regarded as unquestionable no matter what. Unfortunately, Hugh Ross is in league with the evolutionists on this point and upholds radiometric dating as unassailable proof of ancient ages.
Another such icon of evolution is the fossilized remains of animals and plants, dinosaurs being the preeminent example. Since there were no (recognized) historical accounts of dinosaurs [That’s completely false with copious examples to the contrary, but a separate matter for another time.] it was easy to convince people not acquainted with the historical and archaeological evidence that dinosaurs came from an era in the very ancient past. After all, no known human being could claim to have seen a living example. (Hint: the historical references to dragons are, in fact, references to dinosaurs.)
Based upon this time assumption, and upon the known, empirical science of chemical kinetics and forensic science, it was “known” that all traces of any organic material completely degraded scores and hundreds of millions of years ago. The biology and chemistry of such extinct organisms must remain forever an unanswerable question, except what might be inferred from fossilized bone…Or does it? This brings us full circle to dinosaur blood, which I will deal with more fully in subsequent installments of this series.
The age of the earth and the age of the universe is NOT a peripheral or unimportant issue. The Bible proclaims itself as being a book of the history of the earth and of the universe. God’s salvation plan for humanity unfolds itself within that history and is intertwined with the history of the world. Chronology is central to the biblical worldview and the doctrine of redemption. Hugh Ross’s exposition on this point, if “exposition” it can be called, is decidedly anti-biblical. Ross attempts to marginalize and trivialize the significance of biblical chronology (see pg. 12, etc. of “A Matter of Days.”). If one follows the inevitable logic of Ross’s position, we wind up ultimately with a logical negation of the Gospel.
Does one have to believe in a young earth and a young universe to believe the Gospel of Jesus Christ and be saved? Well, if one wishes to be rationally consistent with the full biblical testimony, the answer would be yes. Human beings, thankfully, are not always rationally consistent. Thank God for blessed inconsistency! Some Christians believe the Gospel of Christ’s atoning sacrifice for their sins despite holding to a tainted and inconsistent view of the historical foundations of redemption.
On this topic, consider this commentary from the creationsunday website (https://creationsunday.wordpress.com/):
“Never mind that, statistically speaking, folks who embrace millions of years of goo-to-you-by-way-of-the-zoo evolution go on to abandon the Christian faith, just as atheist Richard Dawkins did1. The reason for this rejection of religious truth is easy enough to see; just as Jesus told Nicodemus, “If I tell you of earthly things and you believe not; how will you believe when I tell you of heavenly things?” (John 3:12), those who reject the “earthly things” of the Bible concerning Creation, the Fall and the Flood of Noah often go on to reject the “heavenly things” of the Bible, like the Gospel itself. As atheist Frank Zindler noted2:
“The most devastating thing though that biology did to Christianity was the discovery of biological evolution. Now that we know that Adam and Eve never were real people the central myth of Christianity is destroyed. If there never was an Adam and Eve, there never was an original sin. If there never was an original sin, there is no need of salvation. If there is no need of salvation, there is no need of a Saviour. And I submit that puts Jesus, historical or otherwise, into the ranks of the unemployed. I think that evolution is absolutely the death knell of Christianity.”
You see, a literal, historical Genesis is the foundational basis of the Gospel itself.”
In the final analysis, I find Hugh Ross guilty of aiding and abetting the enemy.
In Part 2, we will examine Rana’s Introduction, “What’s the Issue?”
Featured Image: The Creation of the Animals by Rafaello Sanzio 1518 – 1519 A.D.